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Mini-Medical School
About glaucoma 認識青光眼

The new definition of glaucoma

Glancoma has been recognized as a progressing pathological change of optic nerve in the era of the 21st century. For some patients, they have increased intraocular pressure while others don’t; and intraocular pressure has remained the prime attribution to glaucoma. Patients with glaucoma will have their optic nerve damaged with visual defect, and reducing intraocular pressure is the principle to curb the disorder for now.

How does glaucoma take place?

The clear and transparent fluid inside our eyes is “aqueous humor,” which is a close circulation system in our eyeballs. If the circulation is blocked, the intraocular pressure would elevate and lead to damage of optic nerve.

Classification of glaucoma

Generally, glaucoma could be divided into several subtypes. Primary glaucoma includes open angle glaucoma and close angle glaucoma. Secondary glaucoma is incurred by injuries, other ocular diseases, and drugs like topical steroids. Most of the patients with early stage primary glaucoma do not have any symptoms, especially those with open angle glaucoma. Some of the patients have eye soreness, but most of them supposed that the soreness is attributed to fatigue with elevated intraocular pressure. Patients with acute angle closure glaucoma would have acute onset of eye pain, blurred vision, headache, nausea, or vomiting.

Treatment of glaucoma

The treatment of glaucoma is through medication except those with angle closure glaucoma, they have to receive laser iridotomy.

The surgery may be needed in patients with poor control of intraocular pressure.

Who is at risk?

  1. Patients with family history of glaucoma
  2. Patients with diabetes
  3. Patients with hypertension
  4. Smaller eye axle
  5. Elderly people

How to take care yourself?

As long as you are diagnosed with glaucoma, you have to follow instructions given by the doctors. Be sure to timely use eye drops and remember the frequency of using it. Regularly return to the hospital for the outpatient department follow-up to checks of intraocular pressure, change of optic nerve, and visual field.

How to know that you are a glaucoma patient?

Generally, older patients have higher risk of getting glaucoma; Therefore, we suggest people over 40 years old to have their intraocular pressure measure once a year. If you are severely near-sighted or have diabetes, hypertension, or family history of glaucoma, you should be aware of you intraocular pressure since young.

Glaucoma is a chronic but controllable disease as long as patients follow instructions given by the doctors and have regular OPD follow up return to the hospital for OPD.

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