Copper and Copper Poisoning 銅與銅中毒(英文)
Copper and Copper Poisoning 銅與銅中毒(英文)
Copper in the free state is toxic. Almost all of the body's copper is bound to protein. In the United States, for example, the average daily intake of copper in adults is about 1.0 to 1.6 mg. In the food, the animal liver contains the most copper. In addition, lobster, oysters and soybeans are also rich in copper. Normally healthy adults should have a copper absorption of 0.9 mg/day. Studies have shown that if the patient is deficient in copper due to mutual antagonism of zinc and copper, the recommended amount of copper consumed is 3.0 mg/day. We take 2 to 5 mg of copper every day. The World Health Organization recommends a safe upper limit of 10 to 12 mg per day.
Copper in the body promotes the absorption of iron. Therefore, if the intake of copper is insufficient, it will lead to an lack of iron absorption and anemia. Also, insufficient copper can cause abnormalities in white blood cells, such as Neutropenia, and bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis, decreased bone density, and growth retardation. Other symptoms caused by lack of diarrhea, increased cholesterol levels, thyroid disease, abnormal fat metabolism, high triglycerides, non-alcoholic hepatitis, fatty liver disease, and mental and emotional depression. The most common cause of insufficient copper in the human body is excessive zinc intake. The absorption of copper and zinc in the intestines antagonizes each other, and kidney or intestinal diseases may also cause the loss of copper ions.
Possible causes of copper poisoning
- Excessive intake, food or drinking water pollution
- Insufficient amount of zinc in food
- Excess pesticides or pesticides
May lead to copper poisoning occupations: asphalt manufacturers, battery manufacturers, copper refining, gem dyeing, pigments and paints, preservatives, pyrotechnics, wallpaper manufacturing, soldiers, water treatment, welding, power industry, alloys Industry, electroplating industry, fungicide pesticides, snail-killing agents, pigment paint industry, etc.
Oil in copper and zinc in the intestinal absorption and competition with each other, leading to the problem of copper toxicity in recent years is gradually noticed, mainly the lack of zinc in the diet and the widespread use of copper-plated water pipes.
If you use copper cookware to cook acidic foods or hold acidic drinks, it may dissolve and release a few milligrams of copper, especially when the food contains zinc deficiency, which may cause acute toxicity symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Mostly caused by food or juice contaminated with copper sulfate or food. If you eat a lot of copper, it will cause severe nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting blood, degenerative hemoglobin, hematuria and other symptoms. In severe cases, there will be complications such as hepatitis, hypotension, coma, hemolysis, acute renal failure, and convulsions. Even death can happen.
Copper is an essential element of the human body and is quickly excreted through the urine and bile after absorption. There are currently few reports of chronic copper poisoning in the medical literature. However, some people think that long-term exposure to excessive copper or long-term use of copper tableware and water pipes may cause chronic liver disease.
Long-term inhalation of copper dust and fumes can cause perforation of the nose, pulmonary granuloma, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (Vineyard Sprayer's Lung) and lung cancer.
Copper poisoning diagnosis
The amount of copper remaining in the body can be known by measuring the amount of copper in the 24-hour period, the serum Ceruloplasmin level, or the amount of copper in the red blood cells. Hair can also be used to detect copper poisoning if external contamination is excluded.
The concentration of copper in normal human serum is 70 ~ 160 mcg / dl, and the concentration of red blood cell copper is 90 ~ 150 mcg / dl. 24-hour urine contains 3 to 35 mcg/day, mostly less than 100 mcg/day.
Possible complications of copper poisoning
- Ingestion of copper sulfate (2gm) can cause hemolytic anemia, kidney damage, and even death.
- Acute poisoning is mainly supported by support and symptomatic treatment. Pay attention to maintain the smoothness of the respiratory tract and stable blood pressure, and treat with EDTA and DMPS.
- Chronic poisoning: Treatment with zinc tablets, DMPS and D-Penicillamine to promote copper excretion.
- Pay attention to the test of liver and kidney function, hemoglobin, electrolytes, and water balance.
Our hospital’s toxicology department and health examination center offer heavy metal detection and treatment.