Commonly known as blood cancer, refers to the abnormal and excessive proliferation of early hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. As such immature cells (early hematopoietic cells) continue to proliferate, they can inhibit the growth of other normal cells in bone marrow, resulting in many clinical symptoms.
Relevant factors can be summarized as follows:
- Massive radiation exposure: such as an atomic bomb explosion or radiation.
- Chemicals and drugs, such as benzene, arsenic, and chloramphenicol.
- Marrow hypoplasia: Such as Fanconi's anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
- Congenital factors: Just like identical twins suffering from the disease at the same time, or in Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome.
- Bone marrow failure: anemia, thrombocytopenia, and granulocytopenia.
- Organ infiltration: leads to discomfort in all parts of the body or enlargement of the liver and spleen.
- Leukocytosis: It may cause stroke, retinopathy or dyspnea.
- Metabolic changes: hyperuricemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hyperkalemia, hyperthermia or hypothermia, etc.
- Blood examination: examines various blood cell counts, patterns and early hematopoietic cell types.
- Bone marrow examination: The proportion and morphology of all hematopoietic cells, cell surface markers and chromosome examination.
- Give priority to chemotherapy.
- Bone marrow transplantation: improves chances of cure and survival.
- Maintain the integrity of the oral mucosa: clean the mouth every 2-4 hours and use a soft bristle toothbrush. In case of mucositis or bleeding, use a sponge toothbrush instead.
- Keep your mouth moist: encourage mouth-based eating and hold crushed ice in your mouth. If edema is not present, drink 2,000-3,000 c.c. of water.
- Maintain proper nutrition: weigh yourself every day, eat several small meals a day, and take in food high in protein, folic acid, iron and vitamins. Make a diet plan with a dietitian.
- Avoid infection: avoid public places, wear a mask, rinse your hands with water after going to the toilet, and keep the perineum clean and dry.
- Observe signs of bleeding, such as red spots on the skin, bleeding in the gums, and changes in the color of urine and feces. If you have a headache, lethargy or confusion, you may have a cerebral hemorrhage and should seek medical attention immediately.