Amblyopia is a condition in which the structure of the eye is normal, but the corrected visual acuity cannot meet the normal standard.
When the corrected vision of one eye or two eyes cannot reach 20/33 at the age of 4, 20/30 at the age of 5, and 20/25 at the age of 6, the condition is called amblyopia. Amblyopia is not uncommon as its incidence is about 4%. Although the normal eyeballs of newborns have been formed, the progress of their eyesight is constantly developing and changing with their growth. If the visual stimulation is inadequate or poor in a certain period of time shortly after birth, it will cause visual impairment, resulting in "amblyopia."
Most common causes
One of the most common causes of amblyopia is strabismus. Children with strabismus cannot gaze at the same target at the same time. In order to avoid diplopia, the brain will actively suppress the images from the squinting eye, and only keep the images from the good eye. Over time, strabismus will lead to amblyopia.
In addition, the visual acuity difference between the two eyes is too large, leading to the frequent use of only one eye. Or eyes with high myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, resulting in the images not being able to be clearly presented in the retina, will also lead to amblyopia. Some eye diseases, such as congenital cataract and blepharoptosis, can also cause amblyopia because they can block the image into the eyes and reduce visual stimulation. Some genetic factors may also cause amblyopia, so children with family history should be examined by ophthalmologists early.
Amblyopia is usually asymptomatic, unless it is accompanied by strabismus or other eye abnormalities, so early diagnosis is very important. Generally speaking, children over 3 years old can learn the expression of the visual chart through appropriate guidance, and receive complete and correct examination of eyes and vision. Premature infants are more likely to develop amblyopia than full-term infants, and thus they should be examined by ophthalmologists regularly after birth.
A clearer image for the amblyopic eye should be provided and compulsory training should be given until visual acuity is restored. Therefore, children with heteropsia or refractive abnormalities must be corrected by wearing appropriate glasses throughout the day. In addition, "occlusion therapy" can be adopted to place a patch over a good eye to encourage the amblyopic eye to work. The number of days of occlusion depends on the degree of amblyopia, and the effect of occlusion will be better if done all day long. Moreover, an amblyopia training instrument can be used to enhance the therapeutic effect.
Strabismus amblyopia and amblyopia caused by other eye diseases should be corrected with surgery, and amblyopia treatment should be continued after surgery.
The success of amblyopia treatment depends on early detection and treatment. The earlier the treatment, the better and quicker the effect. If you miss the ideal period of vision development and discover or treat it beyond the age of 7, the effect will be greatly undermined. In addition, children who wear a pair of glasses or an eye patch require encourage and guidance from their parents and teachers to overcome psychological issues so as to win this long-term battle and face a bright future!